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Guildford Borough Council says some artworks have "disappeared" over park and ride site and special paving such as the Freiberg/Guildford Keep up to date with the latest news from around the county via the free Get. When you visit Guildford in the heart of Surrey you will find a vibrant market town a wide selection of attractions, places to eat and drink, and a heritage dating back and of course, the Tourist Information Centre – the art gallery is free to visit. . The village of Wanborough lies just to the north of the Hog's Back, close to the. This free content was digitised by double rekeying. . From this date until the Municipal Corporation Act of the borough was governed under the .. The present building, which was erected on the old site (i.e. on the extreme edge of the.
From this date until the Municipal Corporation Act of the borough was governed under the charter of Charles I. The corporation, since ; has consisted of the mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors. The Earl of Onslow is high steward, and there is a recorder. The boundaries of the borough were enlarged inand again inon the latter occasion the aldermen were increased from four to six, and the councillors from twelve to eighteen.
A book containing the minutes of the gild meetings has fortunately been preserved; and the entries in it offer abundant proof touching the importance of this institution. The Close Rolls of fn. The payment in was voted at a meeting of the gild merchant. The business was certainly of the same kind. Thus in the meeting of the gild enacted certain sanitary regulations fn.
That no common poulterer buy any victuals in the market before eleven of the clock. That no baker buy any corn before eleven of the clock. That every man sell by lawful weights and measures, and that they be assized by the King's standard. That butchers bring the skins of their beasts and sheep to the market and shew the same openly during all the market. That the bakers bake good bread and according to assize. That the brewers make good and wholesome ale, and that they sell none till it be tasted by the ale-taster.
That the tipplers sell by lawful measure and set out their ale signs. Members were elected on the Monday after Hilary to provide a bull for baiting on the Monday after St.
Martin, subject to a penalty of 20s. In the brethren paid for bread 5d. Nicholas's Church, Guildford The local record of the courts breaks off inand is resumed in His offence, we learn from a letter at Loseley, was 'going about to set up' a maypole. The corporation was severe against foreigners trading in the town; in they were excluded altogether from the markets, except victuallers, graziers, and sellers of oats at the discretion of the mayor. At the same time clothiers were forbidden to send any wool to be spun into yarn within 8 miles of Guildford unless under a bond that it should be brought back to be woven in Guildford.
The number of 'approved freemen' subsequently dwindled, and in was onlybut others were admitted to trade in the markets on payment. The token coinage in Guildford is of the dates to and to The latter issue often has a wool-pack on it, though the wool trade of Guildford was long dead. In the election is noted of a seneschal, two farthing men, a clerk, two butlers pincernaewho superintended the arrangements for the feast, and two hall wardens.
The style of incorporation in was the 'mayor and good men,' fn. The government of the unreformed corporation was entrusted to a steward, mayor, recorder, two justices, bailiff, two coroners, town clerk, hall warden, two serjeants-at-mace, and a beadle. In andin the reformed Parliaments elected under the Instrument of Government, Guildford had one member.
The franchise till was in the freemen and the freeholders paying scot and lot, if resident. These did not number more than in the 19th century. Inby the Redistribution Act of that year, the number of its representatives was reduced to one. Thence they were removed to North Street, except the corn market, which was held in a building in the High Street, built in The cattle market is on Tuesdays, the vegetable market, in the same place, on Saturdays.
The corn market, also held on Tuesdays, was removed to the same neighbourhood in One-third of the tolls of Guildford, according to the custom of English boroughs, was the right of the Earls of Surrey and continuously passed to them. The park was however reserved and is treated under Artington q. Or four pales gules. Azure powdered with fleurs de lis or. Gules a saltire argent in a border argent with roundels azure thereon.
Argent a cheveron gules between three running greyhounds sable with golden collars. From this date the manor followed the descent of Poyle in Tongham for some years. There were then two cornmills and two fulling-mills under one roof in the manor, view of frankpledge and court baron. The Gaynesford family held it tillwhen Richard Battenor, clerk, acquired it by common recovery from John Gaynesford and Alice his wife. Thomas at Guildford was included.
Thereafter there is a long gap. In John Eversfield died in possession. MARY consists of a chancel, central tower, north chapel and south chapel with apsidal ends flanking the tower and half the chancel, nave, north and south aisles, and north porch.
There is no trace of an early nave, but one may have existed. The north and south transepts were added about About twenty years later the chancel was rebuilt on a larger scale and, forty to fifty years later still, narrow aisles were added, and the nave was added or rebuilt if already existing, and the two chapels added, their width being governed by the earlier transepts.
Early in the 13th century the passages between the chapels and the sanctuary may have been cut. The stair-turret between the chancel and the south chapel was probably built at the same time. About the same date the vaulting of the chancel was made, the unequal width of the east and west bays being governed by that of the side arches.
About the side walls of the aisles were brought out to the line of the chapel walls, and wider arches were inserted between the aisles and the chapels.
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In the 14th century a large number of windows were inserted; and possibly at the same time the floor line of the church was altered from an east-towest slope to an easier slope, with flights of steps leading to the chapels and chancel. The 15th-century alterations include some of the windows and the re-roofing of the church throughout. Modern restoration is responsible for the refacing of the whole church, except the tower and the east end, and the replacing of almost all the exterior stonework of the windows.
The chancel has a 15th-century east window of five cinquefoiled lights with tracery over, in a fourcentred head. Below the window on the interior is a scroll-moulded string.
On the north and south are to be seen the eastern jambs and part of the heads of two early 12th-century lights, blocked by the building of the chapel apses. The openings of the skew passages from the chapels are between these and the east wall. That on the north has a pointed arch at the north end and is roughly rounded at the chancel end. The proximity of the vice narrows the southern skew passage, which is pointed throughout.
The north chapel opens to the chancel by an arch with responds which have been flattened to receive a wooden screen. The capitals are scalloped, and the abaci grooved and chamfered.
The pointed arch is of a simple square order with a grooved and chamfered label on each face. The corresponding arch on the south has square jambs with small engaged half-round shafts, having moulded bases and moulded bell capitals with grooved and hollow-chamfered abaci The arch is two-centred.
A small round-headed squint from the western half of the south chapel pierces the west jamb and part of the shaft. The chancel vault is of two bays, the eastern being about 2 ft. These are formed of three shafts, the middle one keeled, with moulded bases and plain bell capitals with moulded abaci.
The main rib against the east wall is carried on pairs of shafts of a similar type with two shafts supported on pointed corbels. The ribs at the western end are also carried on corbels. The diagonals have a hollow chamfer between two rolls, the hollow in those of the western bay being filled with dog-tooth ornament. The chancel arch is pointed. The north and south tower arches are round, with chamfered labels on the sides toward the chapels. Each of these arches cuts into a double-splayed 11th-century window above, that on the north side being almost in the middle of the wall, and that on the south, east of the middle.
On the outer face of either wall are four pilaster strips of flint masonry, the middle pair of each being interrupted by the archways. The western archway is contemporary with the arcades of the nave, and will be described with them. Mary's, Guildford The apse of the north chapel has three windows. That to the south is an original lancet; the middle one is of three lights, and the northern of two lights; both are of 14th-century date.
The arch at the entrance of the apse is pointed, of a single order, with roll edges. The south jamb has been cut away, and the arch springs on that side from a plain corbel supporting a grooved and hollow-chamfered abacus similar to that of the north jamb, which runs to the ground. The early 14th-century north window next to the apse is of three ogee lights, cinquefoiled and having quatrefoils over, in a square head.
Opposite the east face of the tower the wall thickens from 2 ft. In this wall is a midth-century window similar to that just described. The tracery is restored. Both these windows have wooden lintels. A half-round string-course runs round the apse below the windows, broken by the first three-light window and dropped below the other. The apse of the south chapel, St. Mary's Chapel, is lighted by two lancet windows—restored outside— the east lancet is original, and the south shows a 13th-century heightening.
The head of a third appears above the round-headed doorway to the vice in the angle of the apse with the chancel. The vaulting of this apse is of similar detail to the other, but the three bays are equal in size. On the south side of the apse is a small 14th-century piscina, now much damaged; it has an ogee trefoiled head, a projecting half-round basin, and an intermediate shelf; below the windows is a half-round string-course, continuing along the south wall to the west arch of the chapel.
The two south windows of the chapel are modernized outside, but were probably inserted in the 14th century. Each is of three trefoiled lights under a square head. Below the first window is a modern doorway. The nave has an arcade of four bays on either side; the pillars are circular. The responds are half-round, as are also the jambs of the archway from the nave to the tower.
All the capitals, including those to the tower arch—but excepting the middle one of the north arcade — are square, and carved with scallop ornament enriched in various manners, some having spirals at the angles and others nailhead or tooth ornament; the abaci are grooved and hollow chamfered.
The middle capital on the north side has been mutilated by being cut back in order, it is said, to enable an occupant of the former west gallery in the north aisle to see the pulpit from his seat; it is now moulded and of round plan; the corners of the arches have been chamfered off also to find a seating. The arches are all pointed and of a single order with a small keeled edge roll towards the nave and a small hollow chamfer on the other side; the label on the east side of the tower arch is chamfered; that on the west side, and those on either side of each arcade, are grooved and hollow chamfered.
Over the north jamb of the tower arch is a late 15th-century doorway to the rood-loft from the tower; it was evidently approached by a wood stair or ladder in the tower. The west doorway, which is restored throughout, has jambs of two chamfered orders and a two-centred arch; the rear arch has a double-ogee mould, which is old.
The window over is all modern excepting the inner stones of the jambs and arch; it is of five uncusped lights under a traceried head; the jambs are moulded inside and out with a wide hollow. The archway from the north aisle to the chapel has semi-octagonal jambs with modern bases and moulded bell capitals; the detail of the north capital is earlier than that of the south capital; the arch is pointed and of two chamfered orders.
In the gable above the arch is a lancet window with its rear arch to the east which formerly helped to light the chapel before the aisle was widened. The easternmost window of the aisle is a 14th-century insertion, but wholly restored outside; it has three trefoiled lights with quatrefoils above in a two-centred arch; below it is a square aumbry rebated all round.
The second window is a wide lancet with widely splayed inner jambs; this also is restored outside. The north doorway is a fine one of the 13th century; the jambs are of three orders with Sussex marble shafts in the angles; the shafts have double roll bases and moulded bell capitals; the arch is moulded with a series of rolls and hollows; of the two principal rolls one is triple filleted and the other keeled, and the label is also moulded; in the jambs inside are two small sinkings for draw-bars.
The wood porch protecting the doorway is modern. The third light in the north wall resembles the second. Below the windows is a round string-course, which is interrupted by the three-light window, but continues over the doorway.
The west window is old inside and restored outside; it is of three trefoiled lights with tracery. Below it is a small plain square window, now all modernized, the use of which is said to have been to hold a light to guide travellers across the ford of the River Wey, from which it is little more than yds.
It is not, however, opposite the ford. The archway between the south aisle and chapel differs from the corresponding arch on the other side; it has half-round jambs with modern bases and moulded capitals; the arch is of two chamfered orders. Over it is a lancet window which lighted the chapel. North of the arch in the east respond of the arcade is a small mutilated piscina with a square basin in a square recess; probably it dates from the 13th century and may have been set here when the 14th-century piscina in the south wall was inserted.
The latter piscina is now much mutilated, but was originally a fine example; it is semi-hexagonal in plan and vaulted; it was formerly moulded and crocketed on the face, but this is now all cut away. The first south window, above this piscina, is modern outside like the rest in this wall, but has old inner quoins and moulded rear arch; it was probably a late 14th-century insertion of three trefoiled lights under a square head. The other three windows are wide lancets with old inner jambstones and splayed rear arches.
Below the third window is a blocked doorway of which only the segmental rear arch and inner jambs are visible. An early 18th-century plan shows a porch outside it. The west window of the aisle is of four ogee trefoiled lights under a head filled with net tracery; the inside jambstones and arch are the only old ones remaining.
Below, and to the south of this window outside, is a curious niche with a cinquefoiled head; its jambs are skewed to the north. The whole of the exterior of the walling excepting that of the tower and the east wall, which is of chalk has been encased with flint, and all the buttresses are modern except one; the south wall has been strengthened by seven buttresses and the west by four; the north wall has a buttress at the west end and one rebutting the cross arch, both modernized; against the entrance to the chapel apse is a small original buttress in which is a stone carved with a panel having a feathered trefoiled head; probably it formed the back of a lamp niche and had a bracket.
The tower, built of rough flint, can be seen above the roofs on all four sides; the shallow 11th-century pilasters, two on the west face but four on each of the others, are all of rough flints; a few tiles have been mixed with the flint-work.
The chamber immediately above the church is lighted only by a small modern window on the north side and is approached through the space above the chancel vaulting from the east vice.
The bell-chamber is lighted by six windows; of the two in the north wall the east and lower has a trefoiled and square modern head and partly restored jambs, the west and higher is a lancet, modernized outside; on the east side is a large modern lancet, on the west side is an old lancet, and on the south a long narrow lancet and a trefoiled light.
The former has an older half-round rear arch evidently belonging to a former and much wider window. At a line roughly about 5 ft. Above the chancel vaulting is a gabled wood roof covered with tiles.
The two chapels have opentimbered gabled roofs which appear to be old; the rafters lean over considerably to the west. The nave roof is also open-timbered with collar-beam trusses. The space below the tower has a modern flat wood ceiling. The aisle roofs are both gabled and opentimbered; they have moulded tie-beams with traceried spandrels to the struts below them.
These trusses are supported on curiously carved stone corbels, all of late 15th-century date; one in the north-east corner shows a grotesque beast gnawing a bone. The corbel over the re-cut north capital is plain and apparently modern. All the roofs are tiled. The altar table is a light one of polished mahogany with square fluted legs and fluted rails. The font is entirely modern; it has a square bowl of clunch with scalloped under-edge, resting on a chamfered square stem and four small stone shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases.
The pulpit is a modern one of stone and marble; it replaced a 19th-century stone pulpit, the successor of one of 17th-century date, abolished because of its extreme decay. Forming a part of the organ-case, in the south chapel, are the remains of a late 15th-century screen, part of which formerly closed off the apse of the south chapel and formed the backing to an altar; there are eight bays, of which two have plain depressed three-centred arches and another a fourcentred arch with trefoiled spandrels; these three evidently formed doorways on either side of the altar and to the stair.
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The other five heads are cinquefoiled ogees and have plain tracery over. The posts between are double hollow-chamfered and have buttresses with moulded offsets; the cornice is also moulded. On the vault of the apse of the north chapel are a series of I2th-century paintings.
The upper portion of the series contains a version of the favourite mediaeval subject, the 'Doom' or 'Last Judgement. Michael with outstretched wings, holding the balance, one scale of which a winged demon is endeavouring to depress, while a figure between the two scales, representing the soul whose merits and offences are being weighed, turns towards St.
On the left stands an angel who has driven out the condemned souls, which are being carried off by a demon to the fires of hell, seen below. The great interest of this series, however, lies in its lower portion, which consists of six round medallions.
The three on the right relate to the history of St. John the Evangelist, in whose honour this chapel was probably dedicated. Only the head and shoulders of the saint are visible, and his joined hands pointing towards a seated figure of Christ, who extends His right hand in benediction. On the knees of the seated Christ, resting his head against His shoulders, is the sleeping figure of St. John as 'the disciple who leaned upon Jesus' breast' at the Last Supper.
In the centre the apostle is shown raising to his lips the cup of poison, which he drank unharmed, while in front of him are the bodies of two men who died from the effects of the same poison and were afterwards raised to life by the apostle's cloak being cast upon them. On the left of the picture is a seated, cross-legged figure holding a staff of office, either the proconsul or the priest of Diana, both of whom were concerned in the trial and converted as a result of the miracle.
On the right of the picture is a figure seated on a chair before a lectern on which is a book in which he is writing, holding in his left hand the knife used by the scribes for erasing purposes; this is evidently St. The third medallion, again, contains two subjects. On the right the apostle extends his hands in benediction over three rods and a number of stones.
Waller identified this as part of the miracle of St. John and 'Crato the philosopher. John to sell their jewels and other possessions and give the price to the poor, repented having so done; the apostle then took certain rods and stones and converted them into gold and gems of miraculous purity, bidding the young men choose between these and heavenly riches.
The remaining portion of the medallion is taken up with another miracle. The saint is shown standing beside a square altar, upon which is a cup or chalice; his right hand is extended in benediction over a figure lying in front of the altar with joined hands; over the saint is the Hand of God, in benediction, issuing from clouds.
Waller suggests, represents the raising of Drusiana, a lady of Ephesus, who, ardently desiring to see St. John, died just before his arrival in the city and was by him restored to life. Of the second or left-hand series of medallions, the middle one shows a king with crown and sceptre, seated cross-legged upon a throne, pronouncing sentence upon a bearded prisoner, who is led by a rope round his neck by a hideous gaoler; on the right a still more hideous executioner is shown striking off the same prisoner's head.
This is no doubt, as Mr. John the Baptist and King Herod. In the next medallion Christ is seen standing with right hand stretched in benediction over a font, from which issue the head, shoulders, and joined hands of a man with a pronouncedly Jewish nose; on the right the same man is shown committing a parchment with two seals to the flames shown as alternate wavy streaks of red and white.
In the last medallion we again see Christ standing; at His feet kneels an adoring figure, over whose head are two demons of unintentionally humorous aspect; behind these is a figure with its hands tied behind its back, being pulled forward by two more demons by a rope round its neck; a man with a sword, evidently in charge of the bound figure, appears to be accusing his prisoner to Christ, whose left hand is raised in admonition.
The most probable explanation seems to be that the prisoner is the 'woman taken in adultery,' while the kneeling figure may possibly be Mary Magdalene, ' out of whom He had cast seven devils. John, the patron of the chapel, as typical of good works, and on the left three scenes relating to the vices of Anger, Usury or Greed, and Lust. The church contains no ancient monuments, but standing in the nave is a stone slab on which are the small brass figures of a man and woman in early 16th-century dress; this is said to have been dug up in the roadway east of the church, and no doubt had been previously removed therefrom.
The man has long hair and wears a long cloak with fur collar and loose sleeves, and from his belt is suspended a purse; the lady has a tight bodice, loose skirt, long belt, and long head-dress.
The only other stone of note is a slab lying in the south chapel, near the organ, to one Zelotes Parson, son of Nicholas Parson, who died in aged ninety-four years and two months.
There are six bells, all cast by Lester and Pack in The communion plate comprises a silver flagon and a large paten, both ofa small chalice and stand paten ofand a small thin circular concave plate without a date-letter, but stamped with the head of George III. There are also four pewter plates.
The registers begin in ; the second book contains baptisms, marriages, and burials arranged in columns from to On loose sheets at the end is a list of those not baptized; the third contains baptisms, marriages, and burials from toand the baptisms and burials to ; the fourth has marriages from to The churchyard falls from east to west and surrounds the building, but lies chiefly to the north and south, at the east and west being mere passage-ways.
An iron fence now divides it from Quarry Street along its east boundary, and from the other surrounding south and west roads; entrance gates are at the south-east corner and to the north-east. The churchyard formerly extended farther east, Quarry Street being a mere bridle-way tillwhen the roadway was widened. It is sited at the top end of the High Street, opposite Holy Trinity church. The brick-built, three-storey entrance tower faces the church; a grand stone archway leads into the courtyard.
On each corner of the tower there is an octagonal turret rising an extra floor, with lead ogee domes. This allowed Guildford businesses to access the Thames at Weybridge by boat, and predated the major canal building program in Britain by more than a century.
In the navigation was extended as far as Godalming and in to the sea near Arundel via the Wey and Arun Junction Canal and the Arun Navigation. The Basingstoke Canal also was built to connect with the Wey navigation, putting Guildford in the centre of a network of waterways.
Post-Industrial Revolution[ edit ] The Chilworth gunpowder works operated right through the Industrial Revolution, and transported much of its wares through Guildford and its toll paid[ clarification needed ] canal network. InActs were passed for making two railways from Guildford: The Guys would mass on the edge of the town from daybreak on Guy Fawkes Nightwearing masks or bizarre disguises and armed with clubs and lighted torches.
At nightfall they would enter the town and avenge themselves on those who had crossed them in the preceding year by committing assaults and damaging property, often looting the belongings of victims from their houses and burning them on bonfires in the middle of the street.
In later years attempts to suppress the Guys led to the deaths of two police officers. In and the Guys were dispersed by cavalry and this seems to have brought an end to the riots. Similar disorder surrounding the St Catherine's Hill Fair, held just outside the town on the Pilgrims' Way, was suppressed around the same time. However, inthe brothers were persuaded to join the temperance movementand they poured their entire stock into the gutters of the High Street. Left with no livelihood, they converted their now empty shop into a dairy.
Using a milk separatorthey bought milk from local farmers, and after extracting the cream and whey, sold the skim back to the farmers for pig feed. Taking a year to build, it comprised two main tunnels with interconnecting tunnels for the sleeping bunks. It could accommodate people and provided sanitation and first aid facilities. Having been sealed since decommissioning init has survived fairly intact. The pubs were targeted because soldiers from the barracks at Pirbright were known to frequent them.
They claimed to have been tortured by the police and denied involvement in the bombing. In after a long legal battle, their convictions were overturned and they were released. A farmers' market is usually held on the first Tuesday of each month.